Ground floor treatments

Ground floor treatments and doors provide a non-load bearing screen-work and entrance system suitable for all types of external ground floor or internal single storey glazing.

The fully integrated systems offered by GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING are suitable for retail shopfronts, garage showrooms, entrances and screenwalls.

The entrance to any building must fulfil a number of important visual and operational criteria. These criteria can be met through the application of careful design and detailing. GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers building designers, architects and specifiers a complete technical detailing, glass processing, frame fabrication and installation service for entrance doors and surrounds.

The basic purpose of an entrance is to give easy and comfortable access to and from a building. It should offer protection against the elements, conserve internal warmth and provide security. The doors and glass screenwork must be designed to comply with building Regulations Approved Document N and BS 6262: Part 4 : 2005 for safety.

Our framed and frameless systems offered are suitable for internal and external applications. Although normally incorporating doors, the screenwork can be employed to form internal partitioning or shopfront features on its own.

The systems can be adapted to suit both visual and functional requirements.

Framed and frameless door systems can be used in pivoted, hinged, sliding, folding and revolving configurations operated manually and automatically.

The design of an entrance system involves a compromise between the degree of access required and the level of weather-resistance and security envisaged.

There will usually be a considerable difference between the design parameters needed for a shop entrance and that of a commercial office.

Design criteria

The key to a functional solution to the problems of entrance design is a thorough understanding of the envisaged use of the building.

When designing glass entrance systems, consideration must always be given to:

• building use, occupants and visitors if children are frequent users then safety stiles will be required

• the level of security which defines the type of glass and locking system traffic flow and type - how frequently is the entrance to be used, and what degree of routine wear and tear on the door/s may be anticipated
• provision of access facilities for disabled people as required by Building Regulations approved Document M Access facilities for disabled people

• location - is the door internal or external, and what is the expected level of exposure to weather and other outside conditions?

• surrounding structure will dictate the position of the closer mechanism. As well as the usual primary visual considerations, the aesthetic fit required and the nature of the surrounding structure may have a strong influence on the type of fittings that can be used in an application

• manual or automatic preference with reference to BS 7036 the British standard Code of Practice for Provision and installation of safety devices for automatic power operated pedestrian door systems
• fire safety requirements with reference to Building Regulations Approved Document B.

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers two standard types of door:
Frameless glass doors

With rails or patch fittings can be extended into double and multiple door sets which can be further enhanced by glass screenwork to form a full frontage. This system can be used effectively in older buildings whilst preserving, as much as possible, the original appearance.

Aluminium framed doors:

To achieve a higher level of security and protection from adverse weather conditions and can also be extended by screenwork in the same way.

Although the systems are different in appearance, there are some common features which are covered in the following section.

Manifestation

Large, transparent areas of glazing present a safety risk where people could mistake glazed areas for clear openings.

It is good practice to make the presence of glass more obvious with manifestation.

This can be used creatively to enhance the appearance of the doors and side panels. GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers standard or custom designs including logos that can be applied to the glass using a variety of techniques:

  • screen-printing
  • sandblasting
  • adhesive film

These surface finishes can include full colour treatment to give the entrance a unique, customised appearance.

Pivots and hinges

Top and bottom pivots are suitable for those applications where doors need to be free-swinging and will allow both single and double-action operation.

Butt hinges are used when the door leaf is required to close into the rebate of the frame and to help ensure that the maximum opening is available.

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING can supply safety stiles for commercial doors. These stiles help to eliminate the danger of fingers becoming trapped in the opening hinge part of the door. This is particularly relevant for use in public buildings such as schools.

Anti-finger trap stiles are available on both framed and frameless doors.

Sliding doors

Sliding doors can be either bi-parting, operating on a single floor track, or passing, using multiple floor tracks.

Handles

The use of optional handles and exit devices broadens the specification and can add a considerable degree of individuality or identity to door installations. Aluminium pad handles, for example, can be given the same finish as the door frame, and a wide range of special handles are available to order.

When specifying multiple door sets which include leaves opening back to back the potential clash of handles should be avoided.

Locking mechanisms

Key-operated, panic bolt, swipe card, keypad or remotely-controlled entry are just some of the locking options available. All locks can be keyed from one or both sides.

Armour strikes can be incorporated into the slave leaf of double doors, or into the frame of single doors.

Interlocking between a sliding door and its surround greatly reduces the possibility of forced entry. When specifying especially large doors a top lock needs to be accessible.

Aluminium framed ground floor fenestration

Aluminium screenwork and doors are suitable for all types of external ground floor or internal single storey glazing.

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers fully integrated aluminium framed commercial entrance and ground floor fenestration systems. These systems can accommodate both single or double glazing and are versatile enough to accept aluminium framed doors or frameless single-glazed all-glass doors.

The channel and plate system used by GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING allows for strength, slimness of section and concealed fixings, providing freedom of design and minimum visual interruption for both large and modest areas of glazing with flush glazed beads. Our range includes compact box sections that combine strength with profile slimness.

 

Powder coated and anodised finishes provide a spectrum of colours to create any identity or style. The appearance can be varied using:

  • curved glass
  • faceted curves
  • simple corner posts

Strong mechanical joints ensure frame rigidity, and installation time is kept to a minimum with factory fabricated sub-assemblies that are locked together on site. The glass is gasket glazed in a pocket channel, giving the whole system a particularly invisible flush fixing.

Design criteria

The successful installation of a ground floor treatment system requires close collaboration between the designer and GLASSOLUTIONS. An in-depth knowledge of the intended building use, frequency and type of traffic and details of surrounds, together with a thorough understanding of the specifier’s needs, will result in an optimum solution.

Wind loads

Wind loading is the most critical design consideration for ground floor screens. The appropriate loadings for a given location must be ascertained from BS 6399 : 

The infill glass panels must be chosen so as to withstand the deflection caused by the wind and conform to BS 6206 and Approved Document N of the Building Regulations.

The correct choice depends on pane size, dimensions, support and wind load. The overall size of the glass panels that can be specified depends on the wind load, the mullion span and the weight of glass that the mullion is required to support.

The span of any transoms that are required depends on the wind load and the maximum weight that the transom can take.

Fabrication and installation

GLASSOLTIONS CONTRACTING offers a skilled and professional aluminium fabrication operation, providing nationwide coverage from ISO 9001 accredited manufacturing sites.

The standard framing sections are square cut from sections of aluminium alloy 6063 T6 and conform to BS 1474.
Key criteria when considering ground floor treatments:

  • Overall size and dimensions
  • Wind speed and loading
  • Door type and opening style
  • specification
  • Guarding
  • Manifestation
  • Surface finish
  • Flashing / cill detail

Aluminium commercial doors

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers a comprehensive range of aluminium framed doors with glass and composite infills.

A choice of glass and a wide range of stiles, top, bottom, and mid-rails is available to meet individual design requirements.

The many door options available include pivoted, hinged, sliding, folding and revolving configurations operated manually and automatically.

The doors can be incorporated into extended screenwork, both internally and externally. The design of the doors, the processing of the glass, fabrication of the frames and the final installation are combined to form a fully-integrated service from GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING.

Thresholds need careful attention to ensure appropriate weather performance as well as allowing disabled access and other wheeled traffic envisaged. Attention should be paid to Building Regulations approved Document M -Access facilities for disabled people.

Glass and glass processing

SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS offers glass for:

  • protection; safety and security
  • environmental control; thermal, solar, acoustic
  • vision control
  • decoration.
  • Manifestation

Fabrication and installation

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers a skilled and professional aluminium fabrication operation, providing nationwide coverage from ISO 9001 accredited manufacturing sites.

Aluminium profiles are extruded from aluminium alloy 6063 T6 to BS 1474.

Safety stiles

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING can supply safety stiles for its commercial doors. These stiles help to eliminate the danger of fingers becoming trapped in the opening hinge part of the door.

Particularly relevant for use in public buildings such as schools, the safety stile consists of a bulb-ended stile and double weather pile interlock, permitting a maximum gap of only 5mm.

Entrance performance is enhanced by the fitting of twin polypropylene weatherfin piles to the jambs, head and bottom rail. The weather piles are mounted either on the leaf or the frame depending on the configuration of the door.

All rails have an integrally extruded rebate, which prevents the removal of the glass from the outside. The stiles are fitted with a security bead to the outside, which is screwed on and further enhances the security of the glazing.

 

Sliding doors

Sliding doors can be bi-parting, operating on a single floor track, or passing, using multiple floor tracks. They can be manufactured in a diverse range of configurations and styles. Operating on wheels engaged on a floor track with clip-in weather beads and ramps, the top rail and glides slide within a top track.
For security, the sliding door system offers jamb channel interlock, which creates a weather seal and shrouds the lock mechanism.
Bi-parting stiles are fitted with an ‘H’ section profile interlock giving weather sealing and security to the
locking mechanism.
Claw interlocks are fitted at each passing stile and where the stile slides behind a screen or wall giving good weather seal.

The threshold/drained cill can be installed in a number of ways to accommodate the requirements of the specific project.
The sliding panels are fabricated by the same method as described previously but always employ a 100mm stile profile.
Handles

Doors supplied and installed by GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING can incorporate most of the sophisticated locks, handles and exit devices currently available. Aluminium pad handles can be fitted with the same
finish as the entrance frame, and can create a degree of individuality or corporate identity.
A wide range of special handles is available to order. For more information, contact GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING.

Technical data

Frameless all-glass doors

GLASSOLUTIONSCONTRACTING all-glass The technical detailing of the system, systems can be as simple as a the processing of the glass and final single frameless all-glass door installed installation are combined to form a into a prepared opening, or extended fully-integrated service from into a full all-glass single storey GLASSOLUTIONSCONTRACTING. frontage comprising multiple door Successful installation requires close sets and screenwork. collaboration between the designer

Frameless glass systems give an and GLASSOLUTIONS. attractive and functional appearance which enhances the aesthetic appeal of a commercial building.

The glass screenwork can be used externally and internally, with or without doors.

The technical detailing of the system, the processing of the glass and final installation are combined to form a fully-integrated service from GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING. Successful installation requires close collaboration between the designer and GLASSOLUTIONS.

We have the latest CAD packages and an in-depth knowledge and experience of the associated techniques necessary to help determine the best solution for any design application.

The most obvious applications for frameless all-glass doors are the entrance areas to offices and shops, restaurants, hotels and public buildings.

If proper consideration is given at design stage, the correct balance of the entrances’ aesthetic qualities and mechanical functions can be achieved. Their construction and operation complies with all necessary safety requirements.

An effective means of introducing natural light into buildings or making the best use of interior illumination, the system can be incorporated into extended glass screenwork, both externally and internally.

Door configurations can be either one- or two-leaf, and the visual link can be enhanced by using matching glass transoms and side panels to completely fill openings with glass, thus eliminating all the customary visual barriers. By calling on a wide choice of fittings and finishes, and using bespoke artwork, design options may be broadened to bring individuality to any door installation or to promote the customer’s corporate identity.

Apart from selecting the appropriate type of door, it is important to envisage the role played by the surround in enhancing the overall visual effect.

Matching glass side panels and transoms can be linked to additional panes to produce an all-glass façade.

The unique range of frameless all-glass doors permits:

  • creation of large open expanses of unimpaired vision
  • unobtrusive fixings and frames
  • incorporation of corporate imagery to entrances and side panels, using various decoration techniques
  • structural integrity

Glass and glass processing

Frameless all-glass doors and screenwork can utilise the wide range of clear or body-tinted glass options available from SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS.

All-glass door systems are toughened to comply with Class A of BS 6206, in ISO 9000 registered sites.

The glass is drilled and notched, and all exposed edges are polished prior to toughening.

Manifestation

Design options

The design criteria employed when choosing rail or patch fittings depend on a number of factors:

  • internal or external siting
  • size and weight of the door
  • frequency and type of use.

Frameless all-glass doors are specified according to the type of fittings used.

The three basic options are:

Type A:

Entrances are fitted with metal rails running the full width of both top and bottom edges.

The upper rail incorporates a top pivot housing and the bottom rail accommodates the pivot housing for a floor-spring spigot.

  • The use of top and bottom rails gives greater stability to the glass leaf, as well as providing protection for the lower edge of the door
  • This style of door must be used with a transom bar or in a prepared opening.

Type B:

Entrances have a rail on the lower edge and a corner patch fitting at the top. The rail carries the pivot housing for a floor-spring spigot and the patch fitting incorporates a top pivot.

  • The bottom rail gives greater stability to the glass leaf
  • The rail also provides protection for the lower edge of the door. The use of the patch enhances the appearance of the entrance where glass transoms are used.

Type C:

Doors have corner patch fittings that incorporate a top pivot and a floor spring spigot housing.

• This configuration exposes the maximum possible area of glass. Although the floor spring is the most popular specified self-closer for all types of doors, an overhead closer concealed in a transom can be used. If an overhead closer is used in place of a floor spring, the bottom or patch rail is pivoted on a floor spigot.

We can supply safety stiles for commercial doors. These stiles help reduce the risk of fingers being trapped in the opening hinge part of the door.

This is particularly relevant for public buildings such as schools. Standard finishes include:

  • satin stainless steel
  • polished stainless steel
  • anodised aluminium
  • mill-finished aluminium
  • polished brass
  • polyester powder colour coating.

Handles

Careful choice from a wide range of handles can create a degree of individuality or corporate identity in all-glass door installations.

Where large doors are specified, tall handles help to provide extra stiffening for the leaf. Handles are best positioned towards the edge of the entrance, to give the user the best mechanical advantage against the resistance of the door closer mechanism.
When specifying multiple door sets, which include leaves opening back to back, the potential clash of handles should be avoided.

Locking mechanisms

Key-operated, panic bolt, swipe card, key pad or remotely-controlled entry are just some of the locking options available.

Depending on the basic door type and

height, the lock mechanisms include: • on Type A doors, five-lever dead-locks fitted to both top and bottom rails

• on Type B doors, a five-lever dead-lock fitted to the bottom rail. If further security is required, a patch-fitting mortice lock can be added to the centre or top of the door

• on Type C doors, a single-mortice lock is fitted to the centre of the door as standard. Additional locks can be fitted at the top or bottom.

Side panels and transoms

Side panels and transoms are usually fabricated from the same glass as that used in the door assembly.

Depending on the assembly, different glass types may be specified. The side panels and transoms would normally fit into U-channels, but may require mechanical fixing, depending on their weight.
In certain circumstances, partial glass fins may be required to provide rigidity against the turning forces of the door leaf and external wind loads.

As a general guide, when the height of the transom plus the width of the side panel exceeds a total of 1200mm, a fin is needed. The depth and thickness of this fin depends on its height. The fin must be securely fixed to a rigid structure at the top of the assembly, usually by back to back metal angles. The side panels can also be extended further to form a vestibule or full ground floor screen, such as a shopfront.

Technical data

Doors can be designed to suit specific projects, to a maximum of (depending on the closer used):

• Maximum door sizes

All-glass doors require a nominal 3mm clearance between vertical and horizontal top junctions and 7mm between horizontal bottom junctions.

Key criteria when considering DOORS:

  • Overall size and dimensions
  • Wind speed and loading
  • Door type (A, B, C) and opening style
  • Type of closer (90° etc)
  • Glass specification
  • Locking details
  • Manifestation
  • Door handle details
  • Surface finish of rails or patches
  • Fixing substrate

Frameless all-glass screenwork

Frameless all-glass screenwork is a system comprising silicone butt jointed glass panels glazed into channels supported, where required, by glass fin mullions.

It is suitable for all types of external ground

floor or internal single storey fenestration. The versatile systems offered by GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING can incorporate aluminium framed doors, both single and double-glazed, or frameless all-glass single glazed doors.

Ground floor screenwork can be installed to any length and as high as 3.5m.

Design criteria

Wind loading is the most critical design consideration for ground floor screens. The appropriate loadings for a given location must be ascertained from BS 6399 : Part 2.

The thickness of the glass panels must withstand deflection caused by the wind. The correct choice depends on pane size, support and wind load.

Glass fin mullions may also be required to add support, but still maintain the all-glass appearance.

Glass

Toughened or laminated glass is used in all-glass frameless door systems, meeting all safety criteria requirements of BS 6262 class A. Frameless all-glass doors always use toughened glass, see SGG SECURIT.

Where security is a priority laminated glass is often specified, see SGG STADIP page 203. When properly glazed, even safety grade laminates will resist attack, acting as a deterrent to burglars and normally remaining in place until replacement is convenient.

A proprietary box framing system or

glazing channels can be used. Glazing channels can be rebated into the surrounding structure to maximise the all-glass effect in an all-glass façade.

Allowance for doors

Aluminium framed or all-glass door systems can be incorporated into this system. For aluminium-framed doors, an aluminium clad steel ‘goal post’ frame is installed in the screenwork and the door installed in the normal way.

A toughened frameless door system can be incorporated into the screenwork with a toughened glass transom and side panels, or by using ‘goal posts’.

Partial fins may be required to provide rigidity against the turning forces of the door leaf. Fins either side of the side panels add further rigidity.

Fabrication and glazing

Square cut channels of aluminium alloy 6063 T6 that conform to BS 1474. Single glazing uses 25 x 25mm for side and bottom channels and 25 x 50mm for the top channel to allow ‘shuffle’ glazing. Channels for double glazing are chosen to suit the specific unit.

Glass panes are set on glazing blocks and are held in place and sealed in the channel using silicone.

Silicone is used to form the weather-resistant seals at the butt joints.

Automatic doors

Automatic door systems are available in sliding, swinging, folding and revolving door formats, with various activation and safety equipment available to meet individual designs.

Due to advances in electronics, modern automatic door systems are becoming less bulky, permitting a more discreet door appearance to be achieved whilst offering flexible operating systems.

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING provides an integral service of design, fabrication and installation to BS 7036 : Provision and installation of safety devices for automatic power operated pedestrian door systems.

GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING offers the following automated doors:
Automated swing door

Swing door automation systems can be used on internal and external doors, singly or in pairs.

The operating system can be fitted either side of the door, with the electronics and motor combined in a neat housing. The wind load and size of the door determine the specification of the operator.

The swing door operator can be combined with a variety of safety equipment to prevent the door from opening or closing when there is an obstruction. The swing door operator can be used for automating existing manual swing doors. The operators are usually surface mounted, using an arm system, which can be used on pivoted or butt hinged doors.

Invisible automation systems operate on a pivoted door where the system is incorporated in a self-supporting transom. Power in the invisible system is transmitted directly to the door leaf pivot. In the event of a power failure the operators work like any ordinary door closer.
Automated sliding door

Microprocessor-controlled door automation systems are suitable for all types of sliding doors, single and double leafed, in various materials.

The microprocessor is the brain of the automation system, monitoring and controlling the door movement at all times.

With automatic retraction and presence detection, trapping between doors is eliminated. The opening width and control functions can be varied according to individual requirements by switches on the main electronic control.

Reference should be made to BS 7036 :

Parts 1 and 2. In sliding door formats the travelling gear can be mounted on the surface of the door header bar, or within the bar itself.

The door configurations can be single leaf, or bi-parting. Telescopic sliding doors can be used to allow for larger openings.

Sliding doors can be curved adding depth to an entrance. The opening can be wider than flat sliding doors.

Fail-safe mechanisms ensure that the door leaves are moved to the open position by independent battery power should a failure in the main supply be detected. Full ‘break out’, where the door cleaver and side screens hinge open, is available for ‘panic’ situations
Automated folding door

Automated folding door systems can be adapted to fit most frame sizes, whether existing or new.

The folding door operator can be surface mounted or concealed in a self-supporting header bar.
Automated balanced door

The balance door system combines the advantages of both the swing door and the sliding door. The balance door is hung from the frame and does not require any guide rail on the floor.

This hanging principle saves space and can be used for left-and right-hand opening doors, single and two leaf.
Automated revolving door

Automatic revolving doors offer a draught-free solution to entrances. The two leaf revolving door provides spacious access giving an open and light aspect. The load bearing central column is eliminated and there is virtually a straight line of access through the entrance. The rotating section of the door is suspended at the periphery. The doors can be supplied in three or four leaf.

The two leaf revolving door effectively prevents all draughts and keeps the internal and external air separate even during operation. In the ‘night’ position the entrance is fully closed and secure.

In panic situations the door can be pushed out manually in the direction of evacuation. This feature can also be used when bulky goods are being moved in and out.

The four leaf revolving door gives secure access control in both directions if desired. Combined with an access control system, the revolving door can be programmed for a variety of different functions and different levels of security. In all automated door sets electricity would be supplied by others.

For more information, contact GLASSOLUTIONS CONTRACTING.